What do you think? Is ingesting essential oils safe? It should be no surprise that scientific research and traditional aromatherapy agree on their answers.

I'm not sure how it exactly happened, but somehow misguided people started to instill fear into essential oils users that these precious compounds are unsafe for internal use. I say “misguided” in the deepest respect, as I understand that we all have differing opinions, and I know that I'm going to get a lot of “love mail” for this post – hate mail sounds too ugly, doesn't it? 😉

With that said, the more I learn about them, ingesting essential oils is not a common practice for me and my family. I still enjoy a drop of lemon in a 32 ounce glass liter of sparkling water with some liquid stevia as my special soda pop, but that's about it unless I'm battling some specific health condition. It has taken me a year of research & study and literally hundreds (if not thousands) of hours to get to this “revelation.”

Table of Contents for Understanding Ingesting Essential Oils:

  1. The Great Aromatherapy Debate
  2. Do's & Don'ts of Ingesting Essential oils
  3. Aromatherapy 101
  4. How Essential Oils are Used
  5. Tips for Ingesting Essential Oils Safely
  6. FDA Approved GRAS Essential Oils

The Great Aromatherapy Debate

I regularly get questions from people asking me about ingesting essential oils and I now understand why there's so much confusion. One myth breeds more myths. Innocent uncertainty breeds more uncertainty. And the vicious cycle continues.

The fact remains that there are no scientific, evidence-based, anatomical, physiological or logical reasons to say that all essentials oils are unsafe for human consumption. Paradoxically, aromatherapists are still at odds with each other on this point, which confuses the casual essential oil user all the more. With that said, rest assured that large professional organizations like National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA) support safe, internal use.

In the words of NAHA, “Essential oils may be applied on the skin (dermal application), inhaled, diffused or taken internally. Each of these methods have safety issues which need to be considered.” (1) And this makes complete sense to me. Like anything we can easily overdo it, and we must remember a little goes a long way with regard to essential oils – especially internal use! We can also find several local and online schools that will certify you as an aromatherapist and learn how to practice safe, internal use.

The Atlantic Institute of Aromatherapy is one organization in particular that I have strongly aligned myself with as it is the oldest aromatherapy school continually run by a practicing aromatherapist. Their founder, Sylla Sheppard-Hanger, has over 40 years of client-based experience, and has been teaching classes in aromatherapy since 1985. The bottom line is that when an organization like this includes ingesting essential oils guidelines in their curriculum – with hundreds of case studies to support their recommendations – people should stop for a second a listen, don't you agree?

And let's not forget what the universally acclaimed text, Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals, repeatedly refers to “maximum oral dose” in relation to ingesting essential oils safely and effectively.

The thing that really throws me through a loop regarding people who speak out against ingesting essential oils is that they are in direct opposition of the dozens of human studies in the scientific literature and completely disregard the Food and Drug Administration. Yes, you read that correctly! According to the FDA, ingesting essential oils is safe for human consumption as flavor ingredients. For the exhaustive FDA-approved list of Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) oils see below. (2)

Note: not all oils that are safe for ingestion are included in the FDA-approved GRAS list. I recommend that we use this list as a base point to start the conversation about what is and what is not safe because it all boils down to dosage.

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Ingesting Essential Oils: Do’s and Don’ts

Before I dive into some of the ways that ingesting essential oils can be done safely, there some “housekeeping” items we need to discuss. Here are some do’s and don’ts.

Daily Do’s:

  1. Inhale essential oils in an essential oil diffuser, inhaler, spritzer and other fun ways.
  2. Add essential oils in your daily body care regimen.
  3. Be careful – and learn the basics. My Aromatherapy 101 article will help.
  4. Enjoy the good things in life! There’s nothing like one drop of lemon or orange oil mixed with Solubol in a 32 ounce glass liter of sparkling water with some liquid stevia as a special soda pop treat.
  5. Have fun & be empowered! Using essential oils and other natural therapies is a life-changing experience for most people and remember to enjoy the journey as you learn all about them!

Daily Do Not’s:

  1. Consume essential oils for “prevention.” This is wasteful and dangerous, and I was a victim of the take-a-drop-of-essential-oil under your tongue (or in your water) everyday myth until I irritated my esophagus and developed acid reflux! The more I learn about EOs, the less I consume them – only for specific health conditions, or my special soda. And, no, it doesn’t matter how “pure” or “therapeutic” they are. Daily consumption is NOT the most effective (and medicinal) way to use them, and it has taken me 3 years of trial & error (lots of error) and literally hundreds (if not thousands) of research hours to get to this “revelation.” So, please learn from my mistakes!
  2. Think that each health condition within a specific body system should be approached the same way. Meaning this: even though peppermint is great for IBS and nausea, it should not be used for GERD. The University of Maryland Medical Center specifically warns that peppermint tea and essential oil can relax the esophageal sphincter and pose risks for those with reflux.
  3. Believe that “there is an oil for that.” Essential oils have changed my life so much that I have devoted much of my personal and professional lives to sharing the message that they are truly God’s Medicine. Seriously, I’m the “oil” guy and I’ve been blessed with the opportunity to be featured on countless health summits, conferences and documentaries. Yet, let’s be real. Like anything, essential oils are limited by what they can and we should not fall into the trap that they are the end-all cure because misguided hope will disappoint.

Ok, now that we’ve cleaned house, let’s get to work…

Aromatherapy 101

I have written about essential oils extensively, and if you're looking for a quick Aromatherapy 101 course you can check it out in my EO Database. In the meantime, suffice it to say that essential oils are what I like to refer to as God's Medicine. They are chemical compounds found in the bark, leaves, flowers, roots and rinds of plants, fruit, and trees. Interestingly, there are no vitamins or minerals in essential oils as they are made up of compounds that we learn about in organic chemistry class like terpene hydrocarbons (e.g. sesquiterpenes, which have been shown to cross the blood brain barrier) and oxygenated compounds (e.g aldehydes, ketones and esters, which all have unique effects on the human body).

The key to essential oils, and why we should consider them in our natural health regimens, is that they combat pathogens (harmful microorganisms), are a source of antioxidants (needed to prevent and cure disease), and have been shown to contain advanced healing properties in addition to cancer cell cytotoxicity amongst other things.

How Essential Oils are Used

More recently, essential oils have been used under the guidance of the aromatherapy profession, although we have records of people using them as far as thousands of years ago. Did they have essential oils like we know them today? Of course not! Modern distillation procedures are relatively new in relation to the Earth timetable.

However, Nicander (b.c. 183—135), a Greek poet and physician for example, “Spoke of the extraction of perfumes from plants by what we should now call a process of distillation” and we have other ancient accounts of crude methods to extract the precious oil from plants. (3) The term aromatherapy was coined to combine aroma and therapy, indicating therapeutic benefits using fragrance. This is still the heart of aromatherapy, but essential oil use has expanded in many ways and toward many uses. The main categories of use are (4):

  • Inhalation
  • Topical
  • Internal

Inhalation

Not only is inhalation the oldest form of essential oil use, it is also arguably the safest. Oils diffused throughout a room are relatively safe for most people in most cases due to the high level of dilution. More direct effects can be obtained by breathing in a steam directly or inhaling right from the bottle, or from a few drops on a cloth. This carries the volatile oil directly into your respiratory system and mucous membranes, dispersed throughout the steam or air molecules.

Topical

Topical use is a step further than traditional inhalation-based aromatherapy, though still familiar in the context of massage therapy, which often utilizes fragrant oils for massage applications. Instead of the broad dispersion through air droplets that inhalation provides, topical use is much more direct. But at the same time, the oil is absorbed through the barrier layers of skin at a lower rate, while inhalation moves quickly through the thinner mucous membranes.

Knowing your oil and the goal you have in mind can help you determine which application is more appropriate. In theory and in professional practice, some essential oils can be used on the skin undiluted. However, the safest way to apply essential oils to the skin is via dilution. Carrier oils like olive, coconut, jojoba and avocado oils usually have benefits of their own, and you can easily combine a couple of drops in a teaspoon to dilute the oils and bypass potential irritation.

Learn More About Properly Diluting Essential Oils Diluting and dispersing essential oils is one tool we use often for safe topical applications.

Even with dilution it is important to observe individual dermal limits for the essential oils you're using. Some oils require more caution than others.

Internal

The most basic form of ingesting essential oils is in culinary use. Revisiting cinnamon, you could use cinnamon essential oil in a cake batter, but you'd only need one drop for the whole batch vs. a tsp or more of the bark powder. Another common internal preparation is to combine it into a drink and many use something like Solubol to help properly disperse the essential oil.

Do remember that oil and water do not mix, so simply adding a drop to water will leave that drop undiluted. Some oils are irritants and all oils are very strong, so it's best to be safe and dilute it with an edible carrier like coconut oil first before ingesting essential oils.

Tips for Ingesting Essential Oils

It is important to realize that millions of people are ingesting essential oils all day without even realizing it. Where do you think your processed food get their flavor from! Virtually anything that is naturally flavored most likely contains essential oils. This is what the FDA says in the official document Code of Regulations, Title 21, Volume 6, Animal Food Labeling: Specific Animal Food Labeling Requirements.

Foods Containing “Artificial Flavors” and “Spices” do not Contain Oils

“(a)(1) The term artificial flavor or artificial flavoring means any substance, the function of which is to impart flavor, which is not derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof. (2) The term spice means any aromatic vegetable substance in the whole, broken, or ground form, except for those substances which have been traditionally regarded as foods, such as onions, garlic and celery; whose significant function in food is seasoning rather than nutritional; that is true to name; and from which no portion of any volatile oil or other flavoring principle has been removed.

  • Allspice, Anise, Basil, Bay leaves, Caraway seed, Cardamon, Celery seed, Chervil, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin seed, Dill seed, Fennel seed, Fenugreek, Ginger, Horseradish, Mace, Marjoram, Mustard flour, Nutmeg, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley, Pepper, black; Pepper, white; Pepper, red; Rosemary, Saffron, Sage, Savory, Star aniseed, Tarragon, Thyme, Turmeric.
  • Paprika, turmeric, and saffron or other spices which are also colors, shall be declared as spice and coloring unless declared by their common or usual name.
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Foods Containing “Natural Flavors” do Contain Oils

(3) The term natural flavor or natural flavoring means the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional. Natural flavors, include the natural essence or extractives obtained from plants.” By letting common sense be our guide, I propose some tried and true tips on how to take essential oils internally.

  1. Start off by using oils that are GRAS (see below for the FDA-approved list of oils that are Generally Recognized As Safe for internal use).
  2. Be safe (more on that below).
  3. Don't overdo it – limit to 2-3 drops at a time, and be sure to wait at least 4 hours before taking consecutive doses.
  4. Listen to your body, and…
  5. Discontinue use IMMEDIATELY if adverse reactions occur.

Trust me, people don't break out in hives in a “detox” reaction when ingesting essential oils like I've read out there in cyberspace. Pain, irritation, swelling, inflammation, bloating, burning, reflux, and anything else that isn't pleasant is NOT a good sign. This is your body's way of warning you that something harmful is attacking it.

Some More Practical Tips for Ingesting Essential Oils:

  • Be sure to observe appropriate dilution amounts for each oil – especially more caustic oils like oregano and clove. 1 drop per teaspoon is usually safe for people, for example, but clove would need to be diluted much more than that.
  • Putting 1-2 drops in a capsule can help you avoid esophageal irritation. Add your drop into the capsule and fill the rest with your favorite carrier oil to protect your digestive tract.

Culinary Doses for Ingesting Essential Oils

Cooking with essential oils is an extremely effective way to enjoy the health benefits as well as the wonderful experience through your taste buds. 1-2 drops of cilantro or coriander with 1-2 drops of lime, for example, goes wonderfully with your homemade guacamole. Dry 1 drop of cumin in your curry next time. Or 2 drops of black pepper in virtually anything savory!

  • Putting 1 drop of a citrus oil in your water is generally safe and quite enjoyable when properly solubolized. My family and I regularly enjoy a drop of lemon/lime + some liquid stevia in sparkling water as our soda pop alternative. Try mixing your drop of essential oil with 4 drops of Solubol and then adding to the stevia and water.
  • Include 1-2 drops  in your favorite dishes.

What have you found to be the best way to ingest essential oils?

[EODatabase]

FDA Approved GRAS Essential Oils

[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[Revised as of April 1, 2015]
[CITE: 21CFR182.20]
TITLE 21–FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I–FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
SUBCHAPTER B–FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED)

PART 182 — SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Subpart A–General Provisions

Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates) that are generally recognized as safe for their intended use, within the meaning of section 409 of the Act, are as follows:

Common name Botanical name of plant source
Alfalfa Medicago sativa L.
Allspice Pimenta officinalis Lindl.
Almond, bitter (free from prussic acid) Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L., or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
Ambrette (seed) Hibiscus moschatus Moench.
Angelica root Angelica archangelica L.
Angelica seed Do.
Angelica stem Do.
Angostura (cusparia bark) Galipea officinalis Hancock.
Anise Pimpinella anisum L.
Asafetida Ferula assa-foetida L. and related spp. of Ferula.
Balm (lemon balm) Melissa officinalis L.
Balsam of Peru Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch.
Basil Ocimum basilicum L.
Bay leaves Laurus nobilis L.
Bay (myrcia oil) Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore.
Bergamot (bergamot orange) Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia Wright et Arn.
Bitter almond (free from prussic acid) Prunus amygdalus Batsch, Prunus armeniaca L., or Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.
Bois de rose Aniba rosaeodora Ducke.
Cacao Theobroma cacao L.
Camomile (chamomile) flowers, Hungarian Matricaria chamomilla L.
Camomile (chamomile) flowers, Roman or English Anthemis nobilis L.
Cananga Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms.
Capsicum Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L.
Caraway Carum carvi L.
Cardamom seed (cardamon) Elettaria cardamomum Maton.
Carob bean Ceratonia siliqua L.
Carrot Daucus carota L.
Cascarilla bark Croton eluteria Benn.
Cassia bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Cassia bark, Padang or Batavia Cinnamomum burmanni Blume.
Cassia bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees.
Celery seed Apium graveolens L.
Cherry, wild, bark Prunus serotina Ehrh.
Chervil Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm.
Chicory Cichorium intybus L.
Cinnamon bark, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees.
Cinnamon bark, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Cinnamon bark, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees.
Cinnamon leaf, Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees.
Cinnamon leaf, Chinese Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Cinnamon leaf, Saigon Cinnamomum loureirii Nees.
Citronella Cymbopogon nardus Rendle.
Citrus peels Citrus spp.
Clary (clary sage) Salvia sclarea L.
Clover Trifolium spp.
Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum.
Coffee Coffea spp.
Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola.
Coriander Coriandrum sativum L.
Cumin (cummin) Cuminum cyminum L.
Curacao orange peel (orange, bitter peel) Citrus aurantium L.
Cusparia bark Galipea officinalis Hancock.
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Weber and T. laevigatum DC.
Dandelion root Do.
Dog grass (quackgrass, triticum) Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.
Elder flowers Sambucus canadensis L. and S. nigra I.
Estragole (esdragol, esdragon, tarragon) Artemisia dracunculus L.
Estragon (tarragon) Do.
Fennel, sweet Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Galanga (galangal) Alpinia officinarum Hance.
Geranium Pelargonium spp.
Geranium, East Indian Cymbopogon martini Stapf.
Geranium, rose Pelargonium graveolens L'Her.
Ginger Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Grapefruit Citrus paradisi Macf.
Guava Psidium spp.
Hickory bark Carya spp.
Horehound (hoarhound) Marrubium vulgare L.
Hops Humulus lupulus L.
Horsemint Monarda punctata L.
Hyssop Hyssopus officinalis L.
Immortelle Helichrysum augustifolium DC.
Jasmine Jasminum officinale L. and other spp. of Jasminum.
Juniper (berries) Juniperus communis L.
Kola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola.
Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L.
Laurel leaves Laurus spp.
Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix.
Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill.
Lavandin Hybrids between Lavandula officinalis Chaix and Lavandula latifolin Vill.
Lemon Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Lemon balm (see balm)
Lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus DC. and Cymbopogon lexuosus Stapf.
Lemon peel Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Lime Citrus aurantifolia Swingle.
Linden flowers Tilia spp.
Locust bean Ceratonia siliqua L,
Lupulin Humulus lupulus L.
Mace Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Mandarin Citrus reticulata Blanco.
Marjoram, sweet Majorana hortensis Moench.
Mate Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.
Melissa (see balm)
Menthol Mentha spp.
Menthyl acetate Do.
Molasses (extract) Saccarum officinarum L.
Mustard Brassica spp.
Naringin Citrus paradisi Macf.
Neroli, bigarade Citrus aurantium L.
Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Houtt.
Onion Allium cepa L.
Orange, bitter, flowers Citrus aurantium L.
Orange, bitter, peel Do.
Orange leaf Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.
Orange, sweet Do.
Orange, sweet, flowers Do.
Orange, sweet, peel Do.
Origanum Origanum spp.
Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini Stapf.
Paprika Capsicum annuum L.
Parsley Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Mansf.
Pepper, black Piper nigrum L.
Pepper, white Do.
Peppermint Mentha piperita L.
Peruvian balsam Myroxylon pereirae Klotzsch.
Petitgrain Citrus aurantium L.
Petitgrain lemon Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Petitgrain mandarin or tangerine Citrus reticulata Blanco.
Pimenta Pimenta officinalis Lindl.
Pimenta leaf Pimenta officinalis Lindl.
Pipsissewa leaves Chimaphila umbellata Nutt.
Pomegranate Punica granatum L.
Prickly ash bark Xanthoxylum (or Zanthoxylum) Americanum Mill. or Xanthoxylum clava-herculis L.
Rose absolute Rosa alba L., Rosa centifolia L., Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa gallica L., and vars. of these spp.
Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses) Do.
Rose buds Do.
Rose flowers Do.
Rose fruit (hips) Do.
Rose geranium Pelargonium graveolens L'Her.
Rose leaves Rosa spp.
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Saffron Crocus sativus L.
Sage Salvia officinalis L.
Sage, Greek Salvia triloba L.
Sage, Spanish Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl.
St. John's bread Ceratonia siliqua L.
Savory, summer Satureia hortensis L.
Savory, winter Satureia montana L.
Schinus molle Schinus molle L.
Sloe berries (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L.
Spearmint Mentha spicata L.
Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia Vill.
Tamarind Tamarindus indica L.
Tangerine Citrus reticulata Blanco.
Tarragon Artemisia dracunculus L.
Tea Thea sinensis L.
Thyme Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus zygis var. gracilis Boiss.
Thyme, white Do.
Thyme, wild or creeping Thymus serpyllum L.
Triticum (see dog grass)
Tuberose Polianthes tuberosa L.
Turmeric Curcuma longa L.
Vanilla Vanilla planifolia Andr. or Vanilla tahitensis J. W. Moore.
Violet flowers Viola odorata L.
Violet leaves Do.
Violet leaves absolute Do.
Wild cherry bark Prunus serotina Ehrh.
Ylang-ylang Cananga odorata Hook. f. and Thoms.
Zedoary bark Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.

[42 FR 14640, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 44 FR 3963, Jan. 19, 1979; 47 FR 29953, July 9, 1982; 48 FR 51613, Nov. 10, 1983; 50 FR 21043 and 21044, May 22, 1985]

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Resources:

  1. https://www.naha.org/explore-aromatherapy/safety/
  2. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.20
  3. https://books.google.com/books?id=GX5BAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA562&lpg=PA562&dq=Spoke+of+the+extraction+of+perfumes+from+plants+by+what+we+should+now+call+a+process+of+distillation&source=bl&ots=NtrOatCKQM&sig=0PlCUp_Ir78BLh3il_jzOPHtxyc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiXsqzp8NvSAhVKQyYKHYDzAjQQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=Spoke%20of%20the%20extraction%20of%20perfumes%20from%20plants%20by%20what%20we%20should%20now%20call%20a%20process%20of%20distillation&f=false
  4. https://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/treatment/aromatherapy